1 wingless usually flattened blood-sucking insect parasitic on warm-blooded animals [syn: sucking louse]
2 a person who has a nasty or unethical character undeserving of respect [syn: worm, insect, dirt ball]
3 any of several small insects especially aphids that feed by sucking the juices from plants [syn: plant louse]
4 wingless insect with mouth parts adapted for biting; mostly parasitic on birds [syn: bird louse, biting louse] [also: lice (pl)]lice See louse
- Rhymes: -aɪs
- irregular plural of louse
Lice (singular: louse), (order Phthiraptera), also known as fly babies, are an order of over 3,000 species of wingless insects; three of which are classified as human disease agents. They are obligate ectoparasites of every avian and most mammalian orders. They are not found on Monotremes (the platypus and the echidnas or spiny anteaters) and a few eutherian orders, namely the bats (Chiroptera), whales, dolphins and porpoises (Cetacea) and pangolins (Pholidota).
DescriptionAs lice spend their entire lives on the host, they have developed adaptations which enable them to maintain close contact with the host. These adaptations are reflected in their size (0.5–8 mm), stout legs, and claws which are adapted to cling tightly to hair, fur and feathers, and that they are wingless and dorsoventrally flattened.
Lice feed on skin (epidermal) debris, feather parts, sebaceous secretions and blood. A louse's color varies from pale beige to dark grey; however, if feeding on blood, it may become considerably darker.
A louse egg is commonly called a nit. Lice attach their eggs to their host's hair with specialized saliva which results in a bond that is very difficult to separate without specialized products. Living lice eggs tend to be pale white. Dead lice eggs are orangeish.
ClassificationThe order has traditionally been divided into two suborders; the sucking lice (Anoplura) and chewing lice (Mallophaga), however, recent classifications suggest that the Mallophaga are paraphyletic and four suborders are now recognised:
- Anoplura: sucking lice, including head and pubic lice (see also Pediculosis or Head lice)
- Rhyncophthirina: parasites of elephants and warthogs
- Ischnocera: avian lice
- Amblycera: chewing lice, a primitive order of lice
- Amblycera: Jumping Lice have very strong hind legs and can jump a distance of three feet
It has been suggested that the order is contained by the Troctomorpha suborder of Psocoptera.
Lice and humansHumans are unique in that they host three different kinds of lice: head lice, body lice (which live mainly in clothing), and pubic lice. The DNA differences between head lice and body lice provide corroborating evidence that humans started wearing clothes approximately 72,000 years ago.
Recent DNA evidence suggests that pubic lice spread to the ancestors of humans approximately 3.3 million years ago from the ancestors of gorillas by sharing the same bed or other communal areas with them, and are more closely related to lice endemic to gorillas than to other lice species infesting humans.
- Lice Pest Control Information - National Pesticide Information Center
- Bed-hopping led humans to 3 million-year itch
- www.phthiraptera.org has extensive scientific information.
- Body and Head lice University of Florida Featured Creatures
- Crab Louse University of Florida Featured Creatures
- WebMD Lice Info
lice in Arabic: قمل
lice in Min Nan: Sat-bó
lice in Breton: laou
lice in Danish: Lus (insekt)
lice in German: Tierläuse
lice in Spanish: Phthiraptera
lice in Esperanto: Laŭso
lice in French: Pou
lice in Ido: Lauso
lice in Italian: Pidocchio
lice in Hebrew: כינים
lice in Hungarian: Tetű
lice in Dutch: Luis
lice in Japanese: シラミ
lice in Norwegian: Lus
lice in Polish: Wesz
lice in Portuguese: Piolho
lice in Finnish: Täit
lice in Swedish: Löss
lice in Turkish: Kımıl